# Bar Plots - R Base Graphs

Previously, we described the essentials of R programming and provided quick start guides for importing data into **R**.

**bar plots**in R. The function

**barplot**() can be used to create a

**bar plot**with vertical or horizontal bars.

# Pleleminary tasks

**Launch RStudio**as described here: Running RStudio and setting up your working directory**Prepare your data**as described here: Best practices for preparing your data and save it in an external .txt tab or .csv files**Import your data**into**R**as described here: Fast reading of data from txt|csv files into R: readr package.

Here, we’ll use the R built-in VADeaths data set.

Data set: *VADeaths*

```
# Data set
VADeaths
```

```
## Rural Male Rural Female Urban Male Urban Female
## 50-54 11.7 8.7 15.4 8.4
## 55-59 18.1 11.7 24.3 13.6
## 60-64 26.9 20.3 37.0 19.3
## 65-69 41.0 30.9 54.6 35.1
## 70-74 66.0 54.3 71.1 50.0
```

```
# Subset
x <- VADeaths[1:3, "Rural Male"]
x
```

```
## 50-54 55-59 60-64
## 11.7 18.1 26.9
```

# Basic bar plots

```
# Bar plot of one variable
barplot(x)
# Horizontal bar plot
barplot(x, horiz = TRUE)
```

## Change group names

`barplot(x, names.arg = c("A", "B", "C"))`

## Change color

```
# Change border and fill color using one single color
barplot(x, col = "white", border = "steelblue")
# Change the color of border.
# Use different colors for each group
barplot(x, col = "white",
border = c("#999999", "#E69F00", "#56B4E9"))
# Change fill color : single color
barplot(x, col = "steelblue")
# Change fill color: multiple colors
barplot(x, col = c("#999999", "#E69F00", "#56B4E9"))
```

## Change main title and axis labels

```
# Change axis titles
# Change color (col = "gray") and remove frame
barplot(x, main = "Death Rates in Virginia",
xlab = "Age", ylab = "Rate")
```

# Stacked bar plots

```
barplot(VADeaths,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan",
"lavender", "cornsilk"),
legend = rownames(VADeaths))
```

# Grouped bar plots

```
barplot(VADeaths,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan",
"lavender", "cornsilk"),
legend = rownames(VADeaths), beside = TRUE)
```

It’s also possible to add legends to a plot using the function **legend**() as follow.

```
# Define a set of colors
my_colors <- c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan",
"lavender", "cornsilk")
# Bar plot
barplot(VADeaths, col = my_colors, beside = TRUE)
# Add legend
legend("topleft", legend = rownames(VADeaths),
fill = my_colors, box.lty = 0, cex = 0.8)
```

**box.lty = 0**: Remove the box around the legend**cex = 0.8**: legend text size

# See also

# Infos

This analysis has been performed using **R statistical software** (ver. 3.2.4).

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