The aim of this tutorial is to show you how to add one or more straight lines to a graph using R statistical software. The R function abline() can be used to add vertical, horizontal or regression lines to a graph.
A simplified format of the abline() function is :
abline(a=NULL, b=NULL, h=NULL, v=NULL, ...)
- a, b : single values specifying the intercept and the slope of the line
- h : the y-value(s) for horizontal line(s)
- v : the x-value(s) for vertical line(s)
Add a vertical line
The simplified format is :
abline(v = y)
It draws a vertical line on the current plot at the specified ‘y’ coordinates.
# first example : Add one line plot(cars) abline(v=15, col="blue") # second example : add 2 lines # change line colors, sizes and types plot(cars) abline(v=c(15,20), col=c("blue", "red"), lty=c(1,2), lwd=c(1, 3)) # third example set.seed(1234); mydata<-rnorm(200) hist(mydata, col="lightblue") abline(v = mean(mydata), col="red", lwd=3, lty=2)
Note that, line types (
lty) and line width (
lwd) are explained here.
Add an horizontal line
The simplified format is :
abline(h = x)
It draws an horizontal line on the current plot at the specified ‘x’ coordinates.
plot(cars) abline(h=40, col="blue")
Add regression line
lm() function is used to fit linear models.
par(mgp=c(2,1,0), mar=c(3,3,1,1)) # Fit regression line require(stats) reg<-lm(dist ~ speed, data = cars) coeff=coefficients(reg) # equation of the line : eq = paste0("y = ", round(coeff,1), "*x ", round(coeff,1)) # plot plot(cars, main=eq) abline(reg, col="blue")
This analysis has been performed using R statistical software (ver. 3.1.0).
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