ggplot2 colors : How to change colors automatically and manually?


The goal of this article is to describe how to change the color of a graph generated using R software and ggplot2 package. A color can be specified either by name (e.g.: “red”) or by hexadecimal code (e.g. : “#FF1234”). The different color systems available in R are described at this link : colors in R.

In this R tutorial, you will learn how to :

  • change colors by groups (automatically and manually)
  • use RColorBrewer and Wes Anderson color palettes
  • use gradient colors

ggplot2 color, graph, R software

Prepare the data

ToothGrowth and mtcars data sets are used in the examples below.

# Convert dose and cyl columns from numeric to factor variables
ToothGrowth$dose <- as.factor(ToothGrowth$dose)
mtcars$cyl <- as.factor(mtcars$cyl)
head(ToothGrowth)
##    len supp dose
## 1  4.2   VC  0.5
## 2 11.5   VC  0.5
## 3  7.3   VC  0.5
## 4  5.8   VC  0.5
## 5  6.4   VC  0.5
## 6 10.0   VC  0.5
head(mtcars)
##                    mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
## Mazda RX4         21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
## Mazda RX4 Wag     21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
## Datsun 710        22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
## Hornet 4 Drive    21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
## Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2
## Valiant           18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1

Make sure that the columns dose and cyl are converted as factor variables using the R script above.

Simple plots

library(ggplot2)
# Box plot
ggplot(ToothGrowth, aes(x=dose, y=len)) +geom_boxplot()
# scatter plot
ggplot(mtcars, aes(x=wt, y=mpg)) + geom_point()

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Use a single color

# box plot
ggplot(ToothGrowth, aes(x=dose, y=len)) +
  geom_boxplot(fill='#A4A4A4', color="darkred")
# scatter plot
ggplot(mtcars, aes(x=wt, y=mpg)) + 
  geom_point(color='darkblue')

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Change colors by groups

Default colors

The following R code changes the color of the graph by the levels of dose :

# Box plot
bp<-ggplot(ToothGrowth, aes(x=dose, y=len, fill=dose)) +
  geom_boxplot()
bp
# Scatter plot
sp<-ggplot(mtcars, aes(x=wt, y=mpg, color=cyl)) + geom_point()
sp

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

The lightness (l) and the chroma (c, intensity of color) of the default (hue) colors can be modified using the functions scale_hue as follow :

# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_hue(l=40, c=35)
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_hue(l=40, c=35)

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Note that, the default values for l and c are : l = 65, c = 100.

Change colors manually

A custom color palettes can be specified using the functions :

  • scale_fill_manual() for box plot, bar plot, violin plot, etc
  • scale_color_manual() for lines and points
# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_manual(values=c("#999999", "#E69F00", "#56B4E9"))
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_manual(values=c("#999999", "#E69F00", "#56B4E9"))

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Note that, the argument breaks can be used to control the appearance of the legend. This holds true also for the other scale_xx() functions.

# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_manual(breaks = c("2", "1", "0.5"), 
                       values=c("red", "blue", "green"))
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_manual(breaks = c("8", "6", "4"),
                        values=c("red", "blue", "green"))

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

The built-in color names and a color code chart are described here : color in R.

Use RColorBrewer palettes

The color palettes available in the RColorBrewer package are described here : color in R.

# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_brewer(palette="Dark2")
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_brewer(palette="Dark2")

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

The available color palettes in the RColorBrewer package are :

RColorBrewer palettes

Use Wes Anderson color palettes

Install and load the color palettes as follow :

# Install
install.packages("wesanderson")
# Load
library(wesanderson)

The available color palettes are :

wesanderson-color palettes

library(wesanderson)
# Box plot
bp+scale_fill_manual(values=wes_palette(n=3, name="GrandBudapest"))
# Scatter plot
sp+scale_color_manual(values=wes_palette(n=3, name="GrandBudapest"))

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Use gray colors

The functions to use are :

  • scale_colour_grey() for points, lines, etc
  • scale_fill_grey() for box plot, bar plot, violin plot, etc
# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_grey() + theme_classic()
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_grey() + theme_classic()

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Change the gray value at the low and the high ends of the palette :

# Box plot
bp + scale_fill_grey(start=0.8, end=0.2) + theme_classic()
# Scatter plot
sp + scale_color_grey(start=0.8, end=0.2) + theme_classic()

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Note that, the default value for the arguments start and end are : start = 0.2, end = 0.8

Continuous colors

The graph can be colored according to the values of a continuous variable using the functions :

  • scale_color_gradient(), scale_fill_gradient() for sequential gradients between two colors
  • scale_color_gradient2(), scale_fill_gradient2() for diverging gradients
  • scale_color_gradientn(), scale_fill_gradientn() for gradient between n colors

Gradient colors for scatter plots

The graphs are colored using the qsec continuous variable :

# Color by qsec values
sp2<-ggplot(mtcars, aes(x=wt, y=mpg, color=qsec)) + geom_point()
sp2
# Change the low and high colors
# Sequential color scheme
sp2+scale_color_gradient(low="blue", high="red")
# Diverging color scheme
mid<-mean(mtcars$qsec)
sp2+scale_color_gradient2(midpoint=mid, low="blue", mid="white",
                     high="red", space ="Lab" )

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Gradient colors for histogram plots

set.seed(1234)
x <- rnorm(200)
# Histogram
hp<-qplot(x =x, fill=..count.., geom="histogram") 
hp
# Sequential color scheme
hp+scale_fill_gradient(low="blue", high="red")

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Note that, the functions scale_color_continuous() and scale_fill_continuous() can be used also to set gradient colors.

Gradient between n colors

# Scatter plot
# Color points by the mpg variable
sp3<-ggplot(mtcars, aes(x=wt, y=mpg, color=mpg)) + geom_point()
sp3
# Gradient between n colors
sp3+scale_color_gradientn(colours = rainbow(5))

ggplot2 color, graph, R softwareggplot2 color, graph, R software

Infos

This analysis has been performed using R software (ver. 3.1.2) and ggplot2 (ver. 1.0.0)


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